Open Access and Free of Charge

Document Type : Review Article


Department of Textile Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran


- Textiles are used in most industries, due to their
specific physical and mechanical characteristics. These
materials are used as sound absorbent because of their porous
structures. Moreover, textiles are less expensive, lightweight
and recyclable. This article reviews the mechanisms,
experimental modeling and research that has been done in
the last two decades in the field of sound absorption in fibers,
carpets, composites, woven fabrics, knitted fabrics, and
spacers. There are several parameters affecting the sound
absorption of textiles, and the effectiveness of each parameter
is specific to each textile. Therefore, the best usage of each
kind of textiles can be determined through considering the
sound absorption behavior at different frequencies. In this
article, it has been tried to provide general and partial specific
information about sound absorption properties of textiles. It
is noteworthy to mention that some research results are in
conflict with each other. 


[1] K. Kalauni and S.J. Pawar, “A review on the taxonomy, factors associated with sound absorption and theoretical modeling of porous sound absorbing materials”, J. Porous Mater., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1795-1819, 2019.
[2] T. Koizumi, N. Tsujiuchi, and A. Adachi, “The development of sound absorbing materials using natural bamboo fibers”, WIT Trans. Built Environ., vol. 59, pp. 157-166, 2020.
[3] F. Sun, P. Banks-Lee, and H. Peng, “Sound absorption in an anisotropic periodically layered fluid-saturated porous medium”, Appl. Acous., vol. 39, no. 1-2, pp. 65-76, 1993.
[4] K. Watanabe, Y. Minemura, K. Nemoto, and H. Sugawara, “Development of high-performance all-polyester sound-absorbing materials”, JSAE Rev., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 357-362, 1999.
[5] X. Tang, C.-H. Jeong, and X. Yan, “Prediction of sound absorption based on specific airflow resistance and air permeability of textiles”, J. Acous. Soc. Am., vol. 144, no. 2, pp. 100-104, 2018.
[6] T. Yang, L. Hu, X. Xiong, M. Petrů, M.T. Noman, R. Mishra et al., “Sound absorption properties of natural fibers: a review”, Sustainability, vol. 12, no. 20, 2020.
[7] P.C. Carman, Flow of Gases through Porous Media, Academic, New York, Butterworths, London, 1956, pp. 182.
[8] M.T. Pelegrinis, K.V. Horoshenkov, and A. Burnett, “An application of Kozeny–Carman flow resistivity model to predict the acoustical properties of polyester fibre”, Appl. Acous., vol. 101, pp. 1-4, 2016.
[9] G.W. Jackson and D.F. James, “The permeability of fibrous porous media”, Can. J. Chem. Eng., vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 364-374, 1986.
[10] V. Tarnow, “Airflow resistivity of models of fibrous acoustic materials”, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 100, no. 6, pp. 3706-3713, 1996.
[11] M. Garai and F. Pompoli, “A simple empirical model of polyester fibre materials for acoustical applications”, Appl. Acous., vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 1383-1398, 2005.
[12] J. Manning and R. Panneton, “Acoustical model for Shoddy-based fiber sound absorbers”, Text. Res. J., vol. 83, no. 13, pp. 1356-1370, 2013.
[13] D.A. Bies and C.H. Hansen, “Flow resistance information for acoustical design”, Appl. Acous., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 357-391, 1980.
[14] M. Tascan, Acoustical Properties of Nonwoven Fiber Network Structures, Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Clemson University, 2005.
[15] S. Aso and R. Kinoshita, “Sound absorption characteristics of fiber assemblies”, J. Text. Mach. Soc. Jap., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 209-217, 1964.
[16] M.A. Kuczmarski and J.C. Johnston, Acoustic Absorption in Porous Materials, Cleveland: NASA Glenn Research Center, 2011.
[17] C. Zwikker and C.W. Kosten, Sound Absorbing Materials, New York: Elsevier Publishing Company, 1949.
[18] M. Coates and M. Kierzkowski, “Acoustic textiles: lighter, thinner and more sound absorbent”, Tech. Text. Int., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 15-18, 2002.
[19] M. Delany and E. Bazley, “Acoustical properties of fibrous absorbent materials”, Appl. Acous., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 105-116, 1970.
[20] P. Soltani, M. Azimian, A. Wiegmann, and M. Zarrebini, “Experimental and computational analysis of sound absorption behavior in needled nonwovens”, J. Sound Vib., vol. 426, pp. 1-18, 2018.
[21] Y. Miki, “Acoustical properties of porous materials-generalizations of empirical models” J. Acous. Soc. Jap., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 25-28, 1990.
[22] I. Dunn and W. Davern, “Calculation of acoustic impedance of multi-layer absorbers”, Appl. Acous., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 321-334, 1986.
[23] J. Ramis, J. Alba, R. Del Rey, E. Escuder, and V. Sanchís, “New absorbent material acoustic based on kenaf’s fibre”, Mater. Construcc., vol. 60, no. 299, pp. 133-143, 2010.
[24] G.H. Yoon, “Acoustic topology optimization of fibrous material with Delany–Bazley empirical material formulationˮ, J. Sound Vib., vol. 332, no. 5, pp. 1172-1187, 2013.
[25] J. Liao, S. Zhang, and X. Tang, “Sound absorption of hemp fibers (Cannabis Sativa L.) based nonwoven fabrics and composites: a reviewˮ, J. Nat. Fiber., 2020. doi: 10.1080/15440478.2020.1764453
[26] E.M. Samsudin, L.H. Ismail, and A.A. Kadir, “A review on physical factors influencing absorption performance of fibrous sound absorption material from natural fibers”, ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 3703-3711, 2016.
[27] M.N. Yahya and D.D.V. Sheng Chin, “A Review on the potential of natural fibre for sound absorption applicationˮ, IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 226, no. 1, pp. 012014, 2017.
[28] B.Y. Hur, B.K. Park, D.-I. Ha, and Y.S. Um, “Sound absorption properties of fiber and porous materialsˮ, Mater. Sci. forum, vol. 475, pp. 2687-2690, 2005.
[29] N. Kino and T. Ueno, “Evaluation of acoustical and non-acoustical properties of sound absorbing materials made of polyester fibres of various cross-sectional shapes”, Appl. Acous., vol. 69, pp. 575-582, 2008.
[30] R. Maderuelo-Sanz, A.V. Nadal-Gisbert, J.E. Crespo-Amorós, and F. Parres-García, “A novel sound absorber with recycled fibers coming from end of life tires (ELTs)”, Appl. Acous., vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 402-408, 2012.
[31] J. Alba, R. Del Rey, L. Berto, and C. Hervás, Use of Textile Nanofibers to Improve the Sound Absorption Coefficient of Drilled Panels for Acoustic Applications, Paper Presented at the Acoustics, 2012.
[32] T. Firsa, M. Tadjuddin, M. Iqbal, and R.S. Putra, “Study of the Sound Absorption Characteristics of Abaca and Coconut Coir Fibersˮ, In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Experimental and Computational Mechanics in Engineering, 2021, pp. 519-531.
[33] E. Taban, F. Valipour, D.D. Abdi, and S. Amininasab, “Mathematical and experimental investigation of sound absorption behavior of sustainable kenaf fiber at low frequency”, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 2765-2780, 2021.
[34] N.H. Bhingare and S. Prakash, “An experimental and theoretical investigation of coconut coir material for sound absorption characteristics”, Mater. Today Proc., vol. 43, pp. 1545-1551, 2021.
[35] D. Parikh, Y. Chen, and L. Sun, “Reducing automotive interior noise with natural fiber nonwoven floor covering systems”, Text. Res. J., vol. 76, no. 11, pp. 813-820, 2006.
[36] N.D. Yilmaz, P. Banks-Lee, N.B. Powell, and S. Michielsen, “Effects of porosity, fiber size, and layering sequence on sound absorption performance of needle-punched nonwovens”, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 121, no. 5, pp. 3056-3069, 2011.
[37] M. Küçük and Y. Korkmaz, “The effect of physical parameters on sound absorption properties of natural fiber mixed nonwoven composites”, Text. Res. J., vol. 82, no. 20, pp. 2043-2053, 2012.
[38] N.D. Yilmaz, N.B. Powell, P. Banks-Lee, and S. Michielsen, “Multi-fiber needle-punched nonwoven composites: effects of heat treatment on sound absorption performance”, J. Ind. Text., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 231-246, 2013.
[39] C.-H. Huang, J.-H. Lin, C.-W. Lou, and Y.-T. Tsai, “The efficacy of coconut fibers on the sound-absorbing and thermal-insulating nonwoven composite board”, Fiber. Polym., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1378-1385, 2013.
[40] H.S. Seddeq, N.M. Aly, A. Marwa A, and M. Elshakankery, “Investigation on sound absorption properties for recycled fibrous materials”, J. Ind. Text., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 56-73, 2013.
[41] J. Liu, W. Bao, L. Shi, B. Zuo, and W. Gao, “General regression neural network for prediction of sound absorption coefficients of sandwich structure nonwoven absorbers”, Appl. Acoust., vol. 76, pp. 128-137, 2014.
[42] X. Liu, X. Yan, L. Li, and H. Zhang, “Sound-absorption properties of kapok fiber nonwoven fabrics at low frequency”, J. Nat. Fiber., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 311-322, 2015.
[43] J.-H. Lin, T.-T. Li, and C.-W. Lou, “Puncture-resisting, sound-absorbing and thermal-insulating properties of polypropylene-selvages reinforced composite nonwovens”, J. Ind. Text., vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1477-1489, 2016.
[44] X. Liu, X. Yan, and H. Zhang, “Effects of pore structure on sound absorption of kapok-based fiber nonwoven fabrics at low frequency”, Text. Res. J., vol. 86, no. 7, pp. 755-764, 2016.
[45] P. Ganesan and T. Karthik, “Development of acoustic nonwoven materials from kapok and milkweed fibres”, J. Text. Inst., vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 477-482, 2016.
[46] M. Kucukali Ozturk, F.B. Nergis, and C. Candan, “Design of electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofiber–coated nonwoven structure for sound absorption”, Polym. Adv. Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 1255-1260, 2018.
[47] M.B. Mvubu, R. Anandjiwala, and A. Patnaik, “Effects of air gap, fibre type and blend ratio on sound absorption performance of needle-punched non-woven fabrics”, J. Eng. Fiber. Fabrics, vol. 14, 2019. doi: 10.1177/1558925019840874
[48] M. Küçük and Y. Korkmaz, “Sound absorption properties of acrylic carpets”, J. Text. Inst., vol. 108, no. 8, pp. 1398-1405, 2017.
[49] S.H. Paknejad, M. Vadood, P. Soltani, and M. Ghane, “Modeling the sound absorption behavior of carpets using artificial intelligence”, J. Text. Inst., vol. 112, no. 11, pp. 1763-1771, 2020.
[50] D. Parikh, T. Calamari, A. Sawhney, E. Blanchard, F. Screen, J. Myatt et al., “Thermoformable automotive composites containing kenaf and other cellulosic fibers”, Text. Res. J., vol. 72, no. 8, pp. 668-672, 2002.
[51] C.-W. Lou, J.-H. Lin, and K.-H. Su, “Recycling polyester and polypropylene nonwoven selvages to produce functional sound absorption composites”, Text. Res. J., vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 390-394, 2005.
[52] Y. Chen and N. Jiang, “Carbonized and activated non-wovens as high-performance acoustic materials: part I noise absorption”, Text. Res. J., vol. 77, no. 10, pp. 785-791, 2007.
[53] M. Tascan and E.A. Vaughn, “Effects of fiber denier, fiber cross-sectional shape and fabric density on acoustical behavior of vertically lapped nonwoven fabrics”, J. Eng. Fibers and Fabrics, vol. 3, 2008. doi: 10.1177/155892500800300206[54] E. Gliścińska, M. Michalak, and I. Krucińska, “Sound absorption property of nonwoven based composites”, AUTEX Res. J., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 150-155, 2013.
[55] I. Krucińska, E. Gliścińska, M. Michalak, D. Ciechańska, J. Kazimierczak, and A. Bloda, “Sound-absorbing green composites based on cellulose ultra-short/ultra-fine fibers”, Text. Res. J., vol. 85, pp. 646-657, 2015.
[56] Y.-J. Pan, C.-T. Hsieh, C.-L. Huang, C.-H. Huang, C.-W. Lou, C.-W. Li et al., “Sound absorbent, flame retardant warp knitting spacer fabrics: manufacturing techniques and characterization evaluations”, Fiber. Polym., vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2682-2688, 2015.
[57] S. Canbolat, D. Kut, and H. Dayioglu, “Investigation of pumice stone powder coating of multilayer surfaces in relation to acoustic and thermal insulation”, J. Ind. Text., vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 639-661, 2015.
[58] H.P. Lee, B.M.P. Ng, A.V. Rammohan, and L.Q.N. Tran, “An investigation of the sound absorption properties of flax/epoxy composites compared with glass/epoxy composites”, J. Nat. Fiber., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 71-77, 2017.
[59] N.A.Y. Mohd Azhar and A.Z.A. Wahid, “Comparison of natural fibers as acoustic panels”, Progress Eng. Appl. Technol., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 85-91, 2021.
[60] C. Kim, G. Cho, H. Yoon, and S. Park, “Characteristics of rustling sounds created by the structure of polyester warp knitted fabrics”, Text. Res. J., vol. 73, no. 8, pp. 685-691, 2003.
[61] T. Dias and R. Monaragala, “Sound absorbtion in knitted structures for interior noise reduction in automobiles”, Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 2499, 2006.
[62] M.G. Honarvar, A.A.A. Jeddi, and M. Amani Tehran, “Noise absorption modeling of rib knitted fabrics”, Text. Res. J., vol. 80, no. 14, pp. 1392-1404, 2010.
[63] Y. Shoshani and Y. Yakubov, “A model for calculating the noise absorption capacity of nonwoven fiber webs”, Text. Res. J., vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 519-526, 1999.
[64] J.F. Allard and G. Daigle, “Propagation of sound in porous media: modeling sound absorbing materials”, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 2785, 1994.
[65] Y. Liu and H. Hu, “Sound absorption behavior of knitted spacer fabrics”, Text. Res. J., vol. 80, no. 18, pp. 1949-1957, 2010.
[66] K. Yang and T.S. Ye, “Sound insulation property of warp knitted fabricsˮ, Adv. Mater. Res., vol. 535-537, 2012.
[67] S. Chen, H.X. Chen, X.P. Gao, and H.R. Long, “Sound absorption properties of polyurethane-based warp-knitted spacer fabric composites”, Indian J. Fibre Text. Res., vol. 42, pp. 299-306, 2017.
[68] V. Arumugam, R. Mishra, J. Militky, and B. Tomkova, “Noise attenuation performance of warp knitted spacer fabrics”, Text. Res. J., vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 281-293, 2019.
[69] M. Davoudabadi Farahani, M. Jamshidi Avanaki, and A.A. Jeddi, “Sound absorption of warp knitted spacer fabrics based on knit structure and nanofiber enhancement”, J. Ind. Text., 2020. doi: 10.1177/1528083720903411
[70] R. Abedkarimi, H. Hasani, P. Soltani, and Z. Talebi, “Experimental and computational analysis of acoustic characteristics of warp-knitted spacer fabrics”, J. Text. Inst., vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 491-498, 2020.
[71] P. Soltani and M. Zerrebini, “The analysis of acoustical characteristics and sound absorption coefficient of woven fabrics”, Text. Res. J., vol. 82, no. 9, pp. 875-882, 2012.
[72] P. Soltani and M. Zarrebini, “Acoustic performance of woven fabrics in relation to structural parameters and air permeability”, J. Text. Inst., vol. 104, no. 9, pp. 1011-1016, 2013.
[73] X. Tang, D. Kong, and X. Yan, “Multiple regression analysis of a woven fabric sound absorber”, Text. Res. J., vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 855-866, 2019.
[74] H. Li, N. Zhang, X. Fan, J. Gong, J. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Investigation of effective factors of woven structure fabrics for acoustic absorption”, Appl. Acoust., vol. 161, pp. 107081, 2020.
[75] U. Berardi and G. Iannace, “Acoustic characterization of natural fibers for sound absorption applications”, Build. Environ., vol. 94, pp. 840-852, 2015.
[76] L. Changwei and L. Lihua, “Preparation and properties of sound absorption composites based on waste wool”, J. Text. Res., vol. 15, no. 1-11, 2018.
[77] Y. Kang, E. Lee, K. Lee, S. Choi, and E. Shin, “Acoustic properties of sound-absorbing polyester fabrics woven with thick staple and thin draw textured yarn for use in interior decoration”, J. Text. Inst., vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 202-210, 2019.
[78] X. Liu, X. Yan, and H. Zhang, “Effects of pore structure on sound absorption of kapok-based fiber nonwoven fabrics at low frequency”, J. Text. Inst., vol. 86, no. 7, pp. 755-764, 2016.
[79] E. Moretti, E. Belloni, and F. Agosti, “Innovative mineral fiber insulation panels for buildings: thermal and acoustic characterization”, Appl. Ener., vol. 169, pp. 421-432, 2016.
[80] H. Qui and Y. Enhui, “Effect of thickness, density and cavity depth on the sound absorption properties of wool boards”, AUTEX Res. J., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 203-208, 2018.
[81] Y. Shen and G. Jiang, “Sound absorption properties of composite structure with activated carbon fiber felts”, J. Text. Inst., vol. 105, no. 10, pp. 1100-1107, 2014.
[82] P. Segura-Alcaraz, J. Segura-Alcaraz, I. Montava, and M. Bonet-Aracil, “The effect of the combination of multiple woven fabric and nonwoven on acoustic absorption”, J. Ind. Text., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1262-1280, 2021.