Document Type : Original Article
1 Department of Textile Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
2 Nanotechnology Research Institute, School of Chemical Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran.
3 Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
Electrospinning (ES) is a process affected by different factors including solutions, apparatus, and environmental parameters. Selecting ES parameters having effects on final scaffold properties is a multicriteria decision-making problem. The use of statistical methods for multi-criteria decision-making can save time, energy and cost of the process and improve the efficiency of the final product. So in this study, the fuzzy VIKOR method with Shannon entropy weighting method was used for optimizing electrospun scaffold for bone tissue healing. For this, in the first step by trial and error, the percentage of polycaprolactone (PCL) in solution was selected. Then composite scaffolds were prepared with different hydroxyapatite (HA) concentrations and ES parameters (flow rate, ES distance, and the voltage). ES parameters, as well as HA concentration affected the studied characteristics of scaffolds. The obtained data were used for deploying weights of seven criteria based on Shannon entropy concept in fuzzy method optimization. Fiber diameter and distribution, surface and volume porosity, fiber alignment, surface roughness, and stable ES process were the 7 criteria considered in this study and 40 electrospun scaffolds were ranked with the fuzzy method by these criteria, then best-ranked samples redesigned. The redesigned samples were studied with SEM, AFM, TGA, Raman spectroscopy, water contact angle, tensile test, MTT assay, live/dead cells, and ALP activity tests. The diameter of the redesigned optimized scaffolds was obtained between 204 and 13 nm; and the surface and volume porosity were 67%-91% and 65%-86%, respectively. No toxicity was found and scaffolds had a positive effect on cell growth
 I. Hernandez, A. Kumar, and B. Joddar, “A bioactive hydrogel and 3D printed polycaprolactone system for bone tissue engineering”, Gels, vol. 3, no. 26, 2017. Doi: 10.3390/gels3030026  A. Schindeler, R.J. Mills, J.D. Bobyn, and D.G. Little, “Preclinical models for orthopedic research and bone tissue engineering”, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A, vol. 36, pp. 832-840, 2017.  R. Rebelo, M. Fernandes, and R. Fangueiro, “Biopolymers in medical implants: a brief review”, Procedia Engineer., vol. 200, pp. 236-243, 2017.  F. Keivani, P. Shokrollahi, M. Zandi, F. Shokrolahi, and S.C. Khorasani, “Engineered electrospun poly(caprolactone)/polycaprolactone-g-hydroxyapatite nano-fibrous scaffold promotes human fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation”, Mater. Sci. Eng. C, vol. 68, pp. 78-88, 2016.  L. Amalorpavamary and V.R. Giri Dev, “Development of biocomposites by a facile fiber spinning technique for nerve tissue engineering applications”, J. Ind. Text., vol. 46, pp. 372-387, 2015.  I.Y. Enis and T.G. Sadikoglu, “Design parameters for electrospun biodegradable vascular grafts”, J. Ind. Text., vol. 47, pp. 2205-2227, 2016.  N. Sabetzadeh and A. Gharehaghaji, “How porous nanofibers have enhanced the engineering of advanced materials: a review”, J. Text. Polym., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 57-72, 2017.  W. Shao, J. He, Q. Han, F. Sang, Q. Wang, L. Chen et al., “A biomimetic multilayer nanofiber fabric fabricated by electrospinning and textile technology from polylactic acid and tussah silk fibroin as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering”, Mater. Sci. Eng. C, vol. 67, pp. 599-610, 2016.  H.M. Pauly HM, D.J. Kelly, K.C. Popat, N.A. Trujillo, N.J. Dunne, H.O. McCarthy et al., “Mechanical properties and cellular response of novel electrospun nanofibers for ligament tissue engineering: effects of orientation and geometry”, J. Mech. Behav. Biomed., vol. 61, pp. 258-270, 2016.  S. Jahnavi, T.V. Kumary, G.S. Bhuvaneshwar, T.S. Natarajan, and R.S. Verma, “Engineering of a polymer layered bio-hybrid heart valve scaffold”, Mater. Sci. Eng. C, vol. 51, pp. 263–273, 2015.  J. Wang, B. Sun., L. Tian, X. He, Q. Gao, T. Wu et al., “Evaluation of the potential of rhTGF- β3 encapsulated P(LLA-CL)/collagen nanofibers for tracheal cartilage regeneration using mesenchymal stems cells derived from wharton’s jelly of human umbilical cord”, Mater. Sci. Eng. C, vol. 70, pp. 637–645, 2016.  L. Salmani and M. Nouri, “Electrospun silk fibroin nanofibers with improved surface texture”, J. Text. Polym., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 75-82, 2016.  A. Valipouri, “Production scale up of nanofibers: a review”, J. Text. Polym., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 8-16, 2017.  H. Baheri and S.H. Bahrami, “Chitosan/nanosilver nanofiber composites with enhanced morphology and microbiological properties”, J. Text. Polym., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 64-70, 2015.  Y.S. More, G. Panella, G. Fioravnti, F. Perrozzi, M. Passacantando, F. Giansanti et al., “Biocompatibility of composites based on chitosan, apatite, and graphene oxide for tissue applications”, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A, vol. 106, pp. 1585-1594, 2018.  N. Wei, P. Cheng, Z. Xiaojun, C. Liang, W. Weizhong, Z. Yanzhong et al., “Three-dimensional porous scaffold by self-assembly of reduced graphene oxide and nano-hydroxyapatite composites for bone tissue engineering”, Carbon, vol. 116, pp. 325-337, 2017.  X. Liu, A. Lee Miller II, B.E. Waletzki, and L. Lu, “Cross-linkable graphene oxide embedded nanocomposite hydrogel with enhanced mechanics and cytocompatibility for tissue engineering”, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A, vol. 106, pp. 1247-1257, 2018.  C.S. Peter and M. Cecilia, “Mesoscale design of multifunctional 3D graphene networks”, Mater. Today, vol. 19, pp. 428-436, 2016.  S. Sheryas, T.Y. Perry, M.U. Theris, D.C.
Sy-Tsong, Y. Letao, and L. Ki-Bum, “Guiding stem cell differentiation into oligodendrocytes using graphene-nanofiber hybrid scaffolds”, Adv. Mater., vol. 26, pp. 3673-80, 2014.  V. Ettorre, P.D. Marco, S. Zara, V. Perrotti, A. Scarano, A.D. Crescenzo et al., “In vitro and in vivo characterization of graphene oxide coated porcine bone granules”, Carbon, vol. 103, pp. 291-298, 2016.  A. Roffi, G.S. Krishnakumar, N. Gostynska, E. Kon, C. Candrian, and G. Filardo, “The role of threedimensional scaffolds in treating long bone defects: evidence from preclinical and clinical literature- a systematic review”, Biomed. Res. Int., vol. 2017, 2017. Doi: 10.1155/2017/8074178  W. Shiege, H. Fei, L. Jingchao, Z. Shuping, S. Mingwu, H. Mingxian et al., “Design of electrospun nanofibrous mats for osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells”, Nanomedicine, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 2505-2520, 2018.  O. Guillaume, M.A. Geven, C.M. Sprecher, V.A. Stadelmann, D.W. Grijpma, T.T. Tang et al., “Surfaceenrichment with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in stereolithography-fabricated composite polymer scaffolds promotes bone repair”, Acta Biomater., vol.
54, pp. 386-398, 2017.  A. Gholipour-Kanani, A. Samadikuchaksaraeai, and M. Fayyazi, “Biological properties of blend nanofibrous scaffolds from poly(caprolactone)chitosan-poly(vinyl alcohol)”, J. Text. Polym., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 3-8, 2018.  M. Fallah, S.H. Bahrami, and M. Ranjbar-Mohammadi, “Fabrication and characterization of PCL/gelatin/ curcumin nanofibers and their antibacterial properties”, J. Ind. Text., vol. 46, pp. 562-577, 2015.  P. Koushki, S.H. Bahrami, and M. RanajbarMohammadi, “Coaxial nanofibers from poly(caprolactone)/poly(vinylalchohol)/Thyme and their antibacterial properties”, J. Ind. Text., vol. 47, pp. 834-852, 2016.  A. Valipouri and S.A. Hosseini, “Fabrication of biodegradable PCL particles as well as PA66 nanofibers via air-sealed centrifuge electrospinning (ASCES)”, J. Text. Polym., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 15-19, 2016.  N. Zhang and G. Wei, “Extension of vikor method for decision making problem based on hesitant fuzzy set”, Appl. Math. Model., vol. 37, pp. 4938-47, 2013.  A.R. Fallahpour and A.R. Moghassem, “Spinning preparation parameters selection for rotor spun knitted fabric using vikor method of multicriteria decisionmaking”, J. Text. I., vol. 104, pp. 29-39, 2013.  M.T. Chu, J. Shyu, GH. Tzeng, and R. Khosla, “Comparison among three analytical methods for knowledge communities group-decision analysis”, Expert Syst. Appl., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 1011-24, 2007.  S. Rahmani, M. Rafizadeh, and F. Afshar Taromi, “Statistical analysis of nanofibers alighnment in magnetic-field-assisted electrospinning including an alignment percentage formula”, J. Appl. Polym., vol. 131, pp. 41179-87, 2014.  A. Shemshadi, H. Shirazi, M. Toreihi, and M.J. Tarokh, “A fuzzy vikor method for supplier selection based on entropy measure for objective weighting”, Expert Syst. Appl., vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 12160-12167, 2011.  F. Nasiri, S. Ajeli, D. Semnani, M. Jahanshahi, and R. Emadi, “Design, fabrication and structural optimization of tubular carbon/Kevlar/PMMA/ graphene nanoplates composite for bone fixation prosthesis”, Biomed. Mater., vol. 13, no. 4, 2018. Doi: 10.1088/1748-605X/aab8d6  H.C. Liu, J.X. You, X.Y. You, and M.M. Shan, “A novel approach for failure mode and effects analysis using combination weighting and fuzzy vikor method”, Appl. Soft Comput., vol. 28, pp. 579-588, 2015.  W. Murphy, J. Black, and G. Hastings, Handbook of Biomaterial Properties, chapter 2, Springer, 2016.  K. Zhang, Y. Fan, N. Dunne, and X. Li, “Effect of microporosity on scaffolds for bone tissue engineering”, Regen. Biomater., pp. 115-124, 2018. Doi: 10.1093/rb/rby001  M.I. Hassan and N. Sultana, “Characterization, drug loading and antibacterial activity of nanohydroxyapatite/polycaprolactone (nHA/PCL) electrospun membrane”, 3 Biotech., vol. 7, 2017. DOI: 10.1007/s13205-017-0889-0  A. Doustgani, “Effect of electrospinning
process parameters of Polycaprolactone and nanohydroxyapatite nanocomposite nanofibers”, Text. Res. J., vol. 85, no. 14, pp. 1445-1454, 2015. DOI: 10.1177/00405117514566109  G. Jiang, S. Zhang, and X. Qin, “Effect of processing parameters on free surface electrospinning from a stepped pyramid stage”, J. Ind. Text., vol. 45, pp. 483494, 2014.